Konstantinos CHALIKAKIS

Assistant professor

  • Institution:
    Avignon University – UMR 1114 EMMAH
  • Scientific competencies:


Konstantinos Chalikakis is Ass. Professor in Avignon University – UMR 1114 EMMAH since 2009. He is specialized in hydrogeophysics, groundwater resources prospection and their sustainable exploration. He has a significant national and international experience in groundwater prospection and exploration in several geological settings of different countries with 32 peer-review scientific papers in the last 10 years and an h-index of 15 (web of knowledge 2019). He presented his work at more than 30 international conferences. He participated (coordinator or WP leader) in 19 national and international research and industrial projects.




  • Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS): an innovative hydrogeophysical method for aquifer exploration – Challenges and limits

Konstantinos CHALIKAKIS

Avignon University, UMR 1114 EMMAH (AU-INRAE), 301, Rue Baruch de Spinoza, 84916 Avignon

 Email *: konstantinos.chalikakis@univ-avignon.fr 

Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) or Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) is a key geophysical tool for hydrogeological investigation. On the contrary to other geophysical methods, the MRS method is based on the resonance behaviour of the magnetic moments of hydrogen protons in the groundwater molecules (eg. Legchenko and Valla, 2002). Thus the obtained magnetic resonance signal is directly linked to the groundwater presence. The derived information from the magnetic resonance signal is the MRS water content (θMRS) and the relaxation times (T2* and T1) that can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity (eg. Chalikakis et al., 2009; Vouillamoz et al., 2012). Due to these advantages MRS gained an important place in the international hydrogeological community for groundwater resources exploration and exploitation (eg. Carriere et al., 2016).

Over the last two decades, researchers and engineers worldwide performed different measuring campaigns in order to evaluate the efficiency and the limitations of MRS using mainly two different commercially available equipment: NumisPoly from IRIS Instruments (France) and GMRTM from Vista Clara (USA). These campaigns were targeting various geological settings and different compartments of the aquifers structure (both unsaturated and saturated zones). Currently, due to important instrumental and software advancing even NMR-borehole probes are also developed.

The main actual research challenges are concerning a) the reliability of MRS measurements under electromagnetic noise conditions, b) high temporal frequency MRS monitoring and c) efficiency on introducing MRS data to hydrodynamic modelling.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS), hydrogeophysics, aquifers characterization 


Carriere, S. D., Chalikakis, K., Danquigny, C., Davi, H., Mazzilli, N., Ollivier, C. and Emblanch, C.: The role of porous matrix in water flow regulation within a karst unsaturated zone: an integrated hydrogeophysical approach, Hydrogeol. J., 24(7), 1905–1918, doi:10.1007/s10040-016-1425-8, 2016.

Chalikakis, K., Nielsen, M. R., Legchenko, A. and Hagensen, T. F.: Investigation of sedimentary aquifers in Denmark using the magnetic resonance sounding method (MRS), Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 341(10), 918–927, doi:10.1016/j.crte.2009.07.007, 2009.

Legchenko, A. and Valla, P.: A review of the basic principles for proton magnetic resonance sounding measurements, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 50(1–2), 3–19, doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(02)00127-1, 2002.

Vouillamoz, J. M., Sokheng, S., Bruyere, O., Caron, D. and Arnout, L.: Towards a better estimate of storage properties of aquifer with magnetic resonance sounding, Journal of Hydrology, 458–459, 51–58, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.06.044, 2012.