Water and Energy belongs to the fifteen main challenges and the key issues for the Humanity in the 21th Century, to achieve its global and local visions and to ensure its sustainable development.
The issue of water is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Abundant on Earth, but unequally distributed, this resource is now threatened by climate change and the risks of over-exploitation. Competition between agriculture, industry and cities for limited water availability is already a drag on development efforts in many countries. As populations and economies grow, competition for limited supplies will intensify, and solutions should be provided to ensure water availability. To face these issues, scientific are asked to provide sustainable solutions to preserve this vital resource, including:
The energy issue is also a fundamental question that must be addressed in the context of a prospective vision of the countries, more specifically Morocco where no substantial fossil energy is available. The aim is to guarantee the energy security of Morocco, to diversify national energy sources, by using alternative energies, and to ensure rational use. The economic development, including industry and transportation, requires a sustainable energy sources. To achieve this aim, Morocco established an ambitious policy to develop renewable energies aiming to cover 52% of its needs in 2030. National researchers should support this national challenge by proving solutions such as: